Eye-Tracking Phishing E-mails

Queensland University of Technology’s Nir Mazor put phishing to the test with eye tracking. Using Tobii eye trackers, Mazor set out to identify how where we look when we evaluate an e-mail relates to our susceptibility to falling for these phishing traps.


Social engineering attacks are more prevalent than ever and the fiscal damage which they cause is of enormous proportion. The most prevalent of such attacks is phishing – an attack (usually in a form of an e-mail) which aims at compromising the victim’s personal information by means of psychological manipulation (such as authoritative and urgent tone of persuasion) in conjunction with an interaction with a malicious link. Developed solutions are mostly technical rather than human-oriented ones. Unfortunately, these solutions do little to eliminate or at least reduce the rate of and damage caused by phishing e-mails.

This study focuses on examining the visual way in which users interact with phishing e-mails to try and establish a recommended visual pattern of e-mail inspection. This understanding may contribute to insights on how to improve inbox UI design in a way which will effectively highlight informative components. To achieve such an insight, the study employed an eye-tracker named Tobii Glasses 2, which recorded the gazes of subjects while making “safe”/”unsafe” decisions in regards to 20 e-mail samples, our of which 80% were phishing e-mails. The collected data had been analyzed through visual heat maps and gaze plots.

The results showed that participants who are more susceptible to phishing focus mainly on the content of the e-mail and its image (if present) while resilient participants focus more on the sender’s address and the URL (if present). Moreover, not only is the attention of the former diverted to less informative components, but their total number of gazes is generally lower.

These outcomes may lead to designing more effective user awareness training and improving the UI of e-mail services. Most importantly, it will provide a theoretical framework for future studies of this nature.

Eye Tracking at Night – RMIT University

A team of researchers at RMIT University led by Dr Jair Garcia and Assoc Prof Adrian Dyer tried the capacity of Tobii 2 Glasses to record in the highly complex lighting conditions at the famous ‘White Night’ event in Melbourne on the 18th February 2017.

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Assoc Prof Adrian Dyer said, “We were pleasantly surprised at the capacity of the glasses to track subject eye movements despite, low light intensity levels and very dynamic changes in illumination conditions The team member shown in the black jacket is filming the amazing art displays near RMIT, and the tablet connected wirelessly to the Tobii Pro Glasses 2 allowed the team to simultaneously see what she was viewing on her camera screen as she composed the image, whilst also looking around at all the incredible art displays. The data allow the team to better understand individual experiences when visiting such a complex art installations.”

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Eye Tracking the UX – Refresher Workshop in Sydney

 

eye-tracking-the-ux-01-1Objective Eye Tracking is hosting a refresher workshop in Sydney on the 3rd of November at the University of New South Wales Business School, Room 130, Level 1.

Eye tracking guru, Dan Sorvik, explains how to get the most out of your Tobii eye tracker. He will cover:

  • Why bother with eye tracking
  • Considerations and pitfalls of eye tracking projects
  • How to make sure everything works on testing day – Set up and risk mitigation
  • Eye behaviours associated with UX issues
  • Case studies from successful projects
  • Analysis and report writing tips
  • Key points for selling eye tracking consulting as part of your UX business
  • Where is eye tracking headed: Autonomous eye tracking

You will also be given the chance to share experiences and ask those burning questions which will make you successful in the future.

CLICK HERE TO SIGN UP NOW!

Advanced topics in eye tracking: Classification of eye movements

Daniel Scheffold, a Tobii Certified Instructor from Tobii Pro has started a 4-part series of advanced topics in eye tracking.logo_pro

Check it out below!


This is the first part of four in our mini-series on advanced topics in eye tracking. We begin with a topic that is fundamental to the technique: classification of eye movements.
 
Why do we need to classify eye movements in the first place?
 
Most modern eye trackers are video-based. Images of the eye captured at regular intervals, the sampling rate, are processed to calculate instantaneous gaze position. This discrete data stream must then be converted back to the informative, continuous eye movements for analysis. This digital-to-analog conversion is accomplished by passing the raw gaze samples through an event detection algorithm called the fixation filter.
 
Fixation filters can come with adjustable parameters to enable tailoring their characteristics to specific circumstances. Choosing the appropriate parameters is of fundamental importance in properly classifying eye movements and calculating valid metrics based on the resulting fixations and saccades.

How do I apply it?
 
There are a variety of fixation filters and researchers may choose based on those commonly used in their field. If using Tobii Pro Studio for analysis, you can choose from several with varying levels of complexity and adjustability.
 
The Tobii Pro Studio default is the Tobii I-VT fixation filter. As a classification filter that operates on the velocity of eye movement, it is effective and commonly used in human behavior research.
You can find the algorithm description here: Download White Paper: Tobii I-VT Fixation Filter

Tip: As reviewers get more demanding and want to understand better how you processed your data, we encourage you to cite this White Paper and the parameters chosen in your methodology section if you use this filter.

Our White Paper on the Default Values Tobii I-VT Filter describes how we determined the optimal parameter values of the Tobii I-VT Fixation Filter.

As this is a generic eye movement filter, it is reasonable to review and validate the parameters of your eye movement filter empirically. You find a great hands-on guide for this is in Chapter 5.3, pp. 153 in “Eye Tracking – A Comprehensive Guide to Methods and Measures” from Holmqvist & Nyström et al. (Oxford University Press, 2011). In Tobii Pro Studio, the Velocity Chart can aid you in this process (see Tobii Pro Studio manual Appendix 14.2)

To summarize, how you classify eye movements in your data is an extremely important step in your research and can have a massive influence on the calculated measures, so choose carefully.

Recommended reading:
Chapter 5, Estimating Oculomotor Events from Raw Data Samples, Holmqvist & Nyström et al., 2011.


If you’d like to learn the basics of eye movements and events (e.g. what are fixations, saccades, smooth pursuit, vergence, VOR), we touched base on it in this article here.

Next up…we will be taking a deeper look at the three different spaces used in eye tracking and how they relate to drawing areas-of-interest. Watch out for the article on eyetracking.com.sg!

What did we learn at the Innovation Labs World?

On 27 September 2016, we attended Innovation Labs World in Singapore as an exhibitor, displaying Tobii eye tracking equipment and our research consultancy services, engaging with the public sector. Indeed, there was copious amount of interest in eye tracking from the various government agencies – thanks to GovTech’s Government Digital Services Hive UX Lab where they use a Tobii Pro X2-30 screen-based eye tracker for their UX research!

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But this event was more than just about showcasing the equipment. It gave us a glimpse into the future that beheld Singapore’s design, technology and IT sector for public service innovation.

Po29936699781_2e335d0ae1_klitical momentum has triggered the creation of new innovation labs, smart city units and digital services. Various representatives from Singapore’s Smart Nation strategy to India’s drive for 100 Smart Cities, and from Australia’s Digital Transformation Office to Makassar’s “War Room” were present at Innovation Labs World. GovTech, the newly formed agency aiming to build deep tech capabilities in the Singapore Government and to drive its digitalisation efforts was also present at this event.

Using tech and the harnessing of data to engage citizens, build better environments and the development of health and innovation policies were some case studies put forth by experts around the world.

We’re really excited that we were part of this and for the future going forth.

 

 

Drop by for the Asia Business Summit 2016!

We are exhibiting at the 2016 Asia Business Series presented by The Institute on Asian Consumer Insight (ACI). Drop by our booth and talk to any of us about eye tracking research for consumers!

Date: 10 Oct 2016, Monday
Venue: Stamford Ballroom, Level 4, Raffles City Convention Centre, Singapore

Join us as we discover the Future Worlds of Asian Consumers.

The series aims to reveal dramatic shifts in the perceived challenges, concerns, hopes and expectations of Asian consumers via the results from ACI’s signature Pan Asian Wave Study. Hear from renowned industry and academia speakers as they share their views on what could mark the next phase of evolution for Asia consumers and companies.

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TOBII PRO GLASSES 2 SOFTWARE UPDATE (July 2016)

Tobii Pro announced a new feature for Tobii Pro Glasses 2 software, which will help us simplify and streamline the behavioural coding process.

New Feature: Event Count (in Tobii Pro Glasses Analyzer)

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This latest feature of the Pro Glasses Analyzer allows you to measure the occurrences of instantaneous behaviours other than gaze, i.e. using events to mark and code relevant user behaviours. In addition, you can also apply the Time of Interest feature to measure the length and duration of these coded behaviours.

By combining gaze data with occurrence of other behaviours in our research, we can create advanced metrics that will enhance in-depth insights into human behaviour.

Other improvements to the Tobii Pro Glasses Analyzer includes:

  • Improved usability by making it possible to edit Custom Times of Interest in the Visualisation tab
  • Added Standard Deviation (N-1) and Variance to all Metrics
  • New columns added in data export: Date of export, Recording resolution, Recording Fixation filter, Gaze event duration
  • Improved Real-World Mapping performance and algorithm

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If you want to find out more Tobii Pro Glasses 2, head over to Tobii Pro’s website for more details.