Eye Tracking in Retail Taking Off in Manila!

Lynette Goh, our very own senior eye tracking research consultant, recently spoke at the South East Asia POP (Point of Purchase) Summit in Manila. She described how wearable eye tracking helps brands and retailers in understanding shopper dynamics and their interaction with in-store marketing.

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This Summit was organized by 11-FTC and Fujifilm Philippines to grow and change the POP landscape with new research and materials technologies in SEA.

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Tobii Glasses 2 eye tracker
Tobii Glasses 2
were showcased at the event and demonstrations were booked solid through out the conference.

This is the next wave of scientific research in shopper research in the Philippines, are you on board? Contact 11_FTC for consulting services in Manila.

Monash University’s Department of Marketing to Host Eye Tracking Research Interest Group Meeting

Do you have an interest in eye tracking and behavioural research?

Join esteemed speakers from Monash University at their (interdisciplinary) eye-tracking research interest group meeting on Friday 2 September, hosted by the Department of Marketing. The aim is to present and discuss current eye tracking research and help generate a research agenda.

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Panel of Speakers (left to right):

  1. Dr Kristian Rotaru (Department of Accounting)
  2. Professor Kyle Murray (Department of Marketing)
  3. Dr Dominic Thomas (Department of Marketing)

The topic of discussion will be on how to make sense of pupil dilation data. Pupil dilations are proxy measures of arousal. This session will present and discuss issues encountered and exploratory findings from two projects that use pupil dilation data extracted from eye-tracking recordings.


Date: Friday, September 2

Time: 2:30-4:30pm

Venue: Monash University, Building S, Level 3, Ramler Room, 26 Sir John Monash Drive, Caulfield East 3145

To RSVP, please fill out this form by close of business, Thursday 1 September.
Please remember to sign the attendance list when you arrive at the event.


Click here to check if you have already RSVPed.
If you can no longer attend, please update your RSVP here.

For any further queries, please email nicky.auster@monash.edu

TOBII PRO GLASSES 2 SOFTWARE UPDATE (July 2016)

Tobii Pro announced a new feature for Tobii Pro Glasses 2 software, which will help us simplify and streamline the behavioural coding process.

New Feature: Event Count (in Tobii Pro Glasses Analyzer)

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This latest feature of the Pro Glasses Analyzer allows you to measure the occurrences of instantaneous behaviours other than gaze, i.e. using events to mark and code relevant user behaviours. In addition, you can also apply the Time of Interest feature to measure the length and duration of these coded behaviours.

By combining gaze data with occurrence of other behaviours in our research, we can create advanced metrics that will enhance in-depth insights into human behaviour.

Other improvements to the Tobii Pro Glasses Analyzer includes:

  • Improved usability by making it possible to edit Custom Times of Interest in the Visualisation tab
  • Added Standard Deviation (N-1) and Variance to all Metrics
  • New columns added in data export: Date of export, Recording resolution, Recording Fixation filter, Gaze event duration
  • Improved Real-World Mapping performance and algorithm

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If you want to find out more Tobii Pro Glasses 2, head over to Tobii Pro’s website for more details.

We’re saving the Planet! Objective Eye Tracking and Prof. Gemma Calvert secure a grant from The Institute on Asian Consumer Insight!

We are proud and excited to announce that Objective Eye Tracking is collaborating with Prof. Gemma Calvert and her team of researchers at Nanyang Technological University on a grant project awarded by The Institute on Asian Consumer Insight (ACI).

This ground breaking research project will seek to understand Asian consumers’ sustainable living perceptions and how that translates into their shopping behaviors. The project tackles key strategic topics under the Possible Future Worlds research initiative at ACI. The mission for this project is to better understand how we can reduce the impact that humans have on Planet Earth.

We will probe into the consumers’ subconscious attitudes and emotions about sustainability, recycling and eco-shopping using cutting edge methods including the Implicit Reaction Time tests and Eye Tracking with the Tobii Pro Glasses 2. These methods will help us uncover new insights that are not easily accessible via regular self-report measures and derive new solutions that will help change human behavior and make a difference.

 

About ACI (The Institute on Asian Consumer Insight)

aciACI was created to help international brands understand Asian consumers and develop business strategies to succeed in Asian markets. By applying the latest market research methods, including psychometrics, biometrics and data-driven approaches, we tap into the deep-seated cross-cultural and often subconscious influences on consumers behavior so that our clients can predict their responses across different Asian markets. ACI also conducts and sponsors research on all aspects of Asian life and disseminates many of these findings on their web-based knowledge platform, Insight+.  For more details about ACI, how we can help your company to better understand your target Asian audience, or find out more about our educational programs, please visit us at ww.aci-institute.com.

ACI is a joint initiative between the Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB) and Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and is hosted at NTU.

About Objective Eye Tracking

oetObjective Eye Tracking are the leaders in Eye Tracking in the Asia Pacific Region. We sell and rent Tobii Eye Trackers to universities, market research agencies, corporates, UX and usability companies across South East Asia, Australia and New Zealand.  We have a team of passionate Customer Experience Consultants who aim to improve the experience of a brand, across every touch point (both online and offline), and are the leaders in using eye tracking technology to uncover unconscious insights which can be used to improve the customer experience.

Objective Eye Tracking at AS4SAN conference in Sydney

Objective Eye Tracking was a Gold Exhibition Partner for this conference. The conference was held at the University of Technology, Sydney.

AS4SAN is an interdisciplinary society devoted to the study of central nervous system mechanisms (e.g. neural, hormonal, cellular, genetic) underlying social and affective behaviour in the context of both normal development and functioning and clinical disorders.

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We were doing demos of the Tobii Glasses 2 as well as other screen mounted eye trackers. We also had a 15 minute presentation slot to talk a bit about how eye trackers work and where they can be used. Thanks to all the professors, students and other delegates who stopped by to say hello and share your ideas.

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Singapore government agencies are embracing the user-centered design process to improve urban living

With the fervent push for Singapore to become a “Smart Nation”, many government agencies are heeding the call to harness technology and user-centered design thinking process to improve urban living. Government agencies such as the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) are starting to set up technology research and innovation labs, aiming to “create new opportunities and improve people’s lives”.

At the forefront of the movement is Singapore’s Government Digital Services (GDS) that is headquartered in the newly launched 13,000 sq ft creative space, IDA Hive, equipped with a Tobii Pro X2-30 screen-based eye tracker. GDS has been in operation for more than 2 years, and the team has developed and launched several apps such as the Singapore Civil Defence Force’s myResponder, the Ministry of National Development’s OneService, Department of Statistics Singapore’s SingStat, as well as the mobile app for the demand-driven, shared transit experiment, Beeline.

GDS also provides consultancy services for other government agencies in developing or enhancing a digital service. For instance, Design Experience lab is a research facility in IDA Hive, where end users are brought in to test the digital service. The objective behind directly studying how users physically interact with the digital services is to better understand the needs and pain points experienced by users. This user-centered approach to design not only provides improvements for the product/services in development, but also insights into experience design for future product/services.

GDS recently engaged Objective Experience in a couple of such usability testing sessions for a new iteration of the IRAS (Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore)’s website with the use of Tobii Pro X2-30 screen-based eye tracker. With the eye trackers, researchers are able to see exactly at which touch points users are having troubles with, and which elements are capturing or not capturing users’ attention. Coupled with the Retrospective Think Aloud (RTA) research methodology where users are interviewed with the cue of the eye tracking video, researchers are able to obtain more reliable accounts of what users are experiencing while interacting with the product/services. This method reduces the risk of fabrications as well as research bias.

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Improvement to the IRAS website were made after one round of usability testing, and were validated with the next. GDS was very receptive to the user-centered design process, and quite a number of recommendations from the first round of testing were implemented. GDS was fervently concerned with making the IRAS website more user friendly for the wider audience (individual, companies, younger and older tax filers alike), and the overall result from the several rounds of usability testing certainly reflects that. For instance, GDS understands the prevalence of mobile computing, and put much attention into redesigning the mobile version of the website. In all, the project saw more favourable feedbacks from end users.

Tobii X2-30 eye tracker on left screen

 

Objective Experience has also collaborated with the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) on several usability testing projects with eye tracking for print collaterals as well as for their website, and the research had certainly led to design reiterations with improved user experience.

With the newly found support for user-centered design process and digital innovation from the Singapore government, the UX community is poised to get bigger and better. And if the UX community gets bigger and better with the support from the government, you know our quality of life is definitely improving.

For more information on how Objective Experience can help improve the lives of your customers, feel free to drop us a comment, or contact our Chief Experience Officer, James, for a chat.

 

 

Eye Trackers & Sampling Frequency

If you are planning to buy a eye tracker, you might have come across the varying sampling frequencies that different eye trackers are capturing gaze data at. Sampling frequency refers to how many times per second the eye position is measured. For example, a 120 Hz eye tracker collects 120 data points for each of the tracked eyes. In order to understand which sampling rate you need for your eye tracking study, let us first take a look at a few types of eye movements and events that are typically studied.

Fixations

  • Fixation lengths (or duration) typically varies from 100 – 800 milliseconds. During these fixations, the brain starts to process the visual information received from the eyes. This is the time when most information from the scene where a person is looking at is acquired. Fixation lengths usually gives an indication of information processing and cognitive activities.
  • Fixation patterns can also indicate certain cognitions e.g., many short sporadic fixations can illustrate confusion, random searching or a lack of content deemed interesting or useful.

Saccades

  • Saccades are extremely fast movement (“jumps”) of the eyes from one fixation to
    another. During a saccade, vision is largely suppressed. This is known as “saccadic
    suppression”.
  • The end point of a saccade is “decided” before it occurs and it cannot be changed in the middle of the movement.
  • Saccades typically range in duration of 10-40 milliseconds, depending on the distance travelled by the saccade.

Smooth Pursuit

  • Smooth pursuit is one of the 2 ways that visual animals can voluntarily shift their gaze, besides saccades. Smooth pursuit allows the eyes to closely follow a slowly moving target, while preserving the stability of the visual image of the target during eye movement. Any other objects beside the target are poorly processed.
  • Smooth pursuit typically range from 90 – 150 milliseconds, but is largely limited to the angular velocity of the moving target. The angular velocity limit of smooth pursuit is typically ~30o/sec, and if the target is moving beyond this limit, “catch-up saccades” would occur.
  • Smooth Pursuit is asymmetrical. We typically perform better when we follow objects moving horizontally, than vertically. Even for vertical pursuits, humans are typically better at downward than upward pursuit.

Vergence

  • Vergence occurs when both the left and right eye move in opposite directions
  • Vergence can involve either a convergence (when object is getting closer) or divergence (when object is getting further) of the lines of sight of each eye.
  • Vergence is the slowest speed eye movement (about 20 times slower than saccades) and are rather small in angular amplitude (typically only a few degrees for each eye)

Vestibular Ocular Reflex (VOR)

  • VOR is a reflex eye movement that goes contrary to head movements, so as to keep the image of the object in fixation more or less the same place on the retina.
  • VOR is one of the fastest reflexes in the human body, with eye movements lagging the head movements by less than 10 milliseconds.

With the main eye events covered, let’s go back to the sampling frequency of eye trackers.

Higher sampling frequency produces better temporal resolution (or accuracy). Lower temporal resolution would mean higher sampling errors. In fact, the average sampling error approximately equates to half the duration of time between samples.

For example, a sampling rate of 1000Hz (1 data point every millisecond) would produce an average error of approximately 0.5 milliseconds, while a sampling rate of 60Hz (1 data point every 16.67 milliseconds) would produce an average error of approximately 8.3 milliseconds. Based on the typical duration of the eye events above, an 8.3 milliseconds error might be considered too large to study saccades and VOR, but not too significant for fixations.

Be mindful that more sampling errors would lead to more “noise” in your data. There are 2 main ways to mitigate data “noise”. One is to collect more data (participants), or alternatively, you can use a higher sampling frequency for your eye tracking study.

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Now let us zoom a bit into fixations. For fixations, you can be interested in where people look (fixation location), and also for how long (fixation duration). For the former, a higher sampling rate does not necessarily gives you better accuracy for identifying gaze location than a lower sampling rate. However, for the latter, a higher sampling rate can give you more precision in identifying when a fixation starts and when the fixation stops.

Given that eye tracking systems cost higher for higher sampling rates, how high do you really need to go? As you might have known, sampling errors can never be completely removed entirely, but they reach insignificance below a certain point. The level of this point depends on the type of eye events you are studying, and the research rigor in your domain of research. For example, researching saccades, VOR or other micro eye movements would require sampling rates of 250Hz and higher, but they are usually only of interest in the academic domain such as neuroscience. For vergence and smooth pursuit, a sampling rate of at least 120 Hz would be preferable.

In the UX domain, the general rule of thumb is to use sampling frequency of 60 – 120 Hz, as most of the time we are only interested in fixations, and sampling errors of around 10 milliseconds for fixation duration are still considered acceptable. If you are only interested in measuring where people are looking at, a 30Hz eye tracker would most likely suffice.

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This is a list of eye trackers that Tobii Pro have to offer:

Screen-based Eye Trackers

Tobii Pro X2-30 (30 Hz)

Tobii Pro X2-60 (60 Hz)

Tobii Pro X3-120 (120Hz)

Tobii Pro TX300 (300 Hz)

Wearable Eye Tracker

Tobii Pro Glasses 2 ( captures at 50Hz or 100Hz)

Alternatively, you can visit Objective Eye Tracking for a comparative glance.

 

If you would like to know more about eye tracking and how it can help you in your research, drop us an email at infosg@objectiveexperience.com or call us at +65 67374511.